The social aspects in the collection of poem and short story Hujan dan Senja TanahRantau by Rara Zarary : Sociology of literature approac

Nur Ngaisah, Diah Ahdiyah, Nur Afiyah
English Department, Faculty of Social and Cultural Science, University of Trunojoyo Madura

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menggambarkan aspek-aspek sosial yang ada dalam kumpulan puisi dan cerpen dengan judul Hujan Senja dan Tanah Rantau oleh Rara Zarary. Aspek-aspek sosial ini akan menjadi alat untuk mengetahui bagaimana penulis menghubungkan karya sastranya dengan sosiologi sastra. Pengarang menciptakan karya sastra berdasarkan kenyataan yang terjadi di sekitarnya. Oleh karena itu, karya sastra dapat diartikan sebagai suatu gambaran mengenai kehidupan sehari-hari di masyarakat. Adanya realitas sosial dan lingkungan yang berada di sekitar pengarang menjadi bahan dalam menciptakan karya sastra sehingga karya sastra yang dihasilkan memiliki hubungan yang erat dengan kehidupan pengarang maupun dengan masyarakat yang ada di sekitar pengarang. Dari penelitian ini, peneliti menyimpulkan bahwa banyak aspek-aspek sosial yang ada dalam karya sastra tersebut yang menunjukkan hubungan antara penulis dengan karya sastranya sangat kuat. Di karenakan, tokoh utama dalam karya sastra ini adalah penulis sendiri. Aspek-aspek sosial yang ada yaitu aspek moral, aspek pendidikan, aspek ekonomi, aspek agama, aspek budaya, dan aspek kasih sayang.
Kata kunci : Sosiologi sastra, penulis, aspek-aspek sosial.

The purpose of this study is to describe the social aspects that exist in the collection of poem and short stories with the title of Hujan Senja dan Tanah Rantau by Rara Zarary. These social aspects will be a tool for knowing how the author relates his literary work to the sociology of literature. The author creates literary works based on the facts that occur around her. Therefore, literary works can be interpreted as a description of everyday life in society. The existence of social and environmental reality around the author becomes the material in creating literary works so that the resulting literary works have a close relationship with the life of the author and the society around the author. From this research, the researcher concludes that many social aspects exist in the literary work which shows the relationship between the writer and his literary work is very strong because the main character in this literary work is the author herself. The Social aspects that exist in this literary work are the moral aspect, education aspect, economic aspect, religious aspect, cultural aspect, and affection aspect.
Keywords: Sociology of literature, author, social aspects.

A. Introduction
The poem and collection of short story under the title Hujan dan Senja Tanah Rantau by Rara Zarary tells about longing and social aspects which come from the author herself. The author is Rara Zarary. Rara Zarary is the student of University of Tribuana Tunggadewi in Malang. She is ordinary a Madurese people. This literary work represent how Rara Zarary’s life in another city. So that, she often missing her town, her parents, her friends and all of her memory life before she go out from another city. This literary work also tells us about some morality aspect especially from the main character, author herself. Rara Zarary has the fortitude, toughness to achieve ideals and live his life by not violating the norms of religion, his love is full of twists and turns but still in the right direction. The story also tells the longing to the hometown that he often referred to as the island of poetry.
In synonymous with water falling from the sky turned out to be an inspiration for a writer herself. A common assumption about rain is water that falls when cloudy. Every human being has different assumptions and perceptions according to the past or their experience which ever felt. In this the poem and short story, the rain is the symbol of a journey which tells about various form of the story, wether with a happy story tear or even a longing story in it and also talk about her social condition which is writen in this literary work. This poem and collection of short story also tells about twilight that is not just a sun that will sink as a sign of day into night. But, life is a journey to step on a goal. Similarly dusk that is not always beautiful is not always bitter depend on the mood of the audience. The aim of this study is to discribe the social aspect in this literary work.

B. Theoritical Review
1. Literature
Sociology Of Literature
The literary critic is needed in literature and almost all of literature work in this world has critic. So many theory can we use actually to analyzed literary work because the author usually make a story which include so many aspect or not only story but it’s can be the new knowledge to the reader and in the story we also study about aspects of sociology. The literary critic literature is seen as a largely self-enclosed, self-sustaining enterprise( The Sociology Of Literature,2008:11). It is mean that if we want to give critic to literary work we must know about the aspect that we must do. Before we analyze a literary work we have to understand about the purpose of the literary work like we must understood in terms of their own inner structure, imagery, metaphor, rhthm, delineation of character, and we must know with the social aspect of the story if we want to analyzed the author. Literature is very important because without literature in this life is not really beautiful because if we study about literature and read some literature’s books it’s can make our more interested to study because using beautiful language and don’t make our feel bored. In literature we also study about what happent in this world and usually the literatur’s writer make the work more interesting with show social aspect so that make the reader more understand about the aspect because in this work the writer usually use the theory and it is very important with us. So if we study about literature we also know about the another science and make our diligent so we must read not only once but always repeat the literary work, because read the work must be careful than another study.

C. Research Methodology
A form of research in collection of poem and short story Hujan dan Senja Tanah Rantau by Rara Zarary using qualitative research. The data is a collection of poem and short story Hujan dan Senja Tanah Rantau by Rara Zarary. And the source of the data taking from the main character’s utterances and author’s narration in this book. Object of research is social aspects which is represented by the author as the main character in collection of poem and short story Hujan dan Senja Tanah Rantau by Rara Zarary.
Research instrument are tools or facilities that are used by researcher in collecting data for easy work in though. This research is qualitative and the researcher use reference books about the theory of literature, sociology theory, article from internet and book collection of poem and short story Hujan dan Senja Tanah Rantau by Rara Zarary. Technical research of this collection of poem and short story :
1. Read the book of Hujan dan Senja Tanah Rantau in a repeatedly
2. Look for the aspect sociology of literature in book collection of poem and short story Hujan dan Senja Tanah Rantau
3. Look for the aspect sociology of literature at the main character in the book collection of poem and short story Hujan dan Senja Tanah Rantau

D. Discussion
The sociology of literature is a specialized area of study which focuses its attention upon the relation between a literary work and the social structure in which it is created. It reveals that the existence of a literary creation has the determined social aspects. The social aspect are :

A. Morality aspect
Based on Oxford Dictionary a particular system of values and principles of conduct, especially one held by a specified person or society. Therefore the morality is important because it is the positif aspect. In this literary also talk about the moral it is the show important of morality.
Rara : Kind
It is proven in her short story in part jika kawan tiba-tiba datang lalu hilang. As a human being we often face some problem with others. In this part, Rara Zarary wants to tells us what we have to do when someone especially our bestfriends doing some mistake. It will broke the relationship between them.
“Hingga akhirnya kau akan paham dan lebih mengerti betapa banyak warna-warni kehidupan ini hingga tiba pada suatu masa dimana semua orang harus bertahan dengan segala cerita-cerita dalam kehidupnya. Katakan pada diri kita, bahwa kita mampu menjadi orang baik untuk alam semesta.”
(Rara Zarary,2016:98)
From this statement, we can see that Rara Zarary is kind person Katakan pada diri kita, bahwa kita mampu menjadi orang baik untuk alam semesta.” This statement using the word “kita” meaning that Rara wants to give the motivation to herself and people arround her to never give up and proof to the world that we are strong enough to running everything in life. It also happen in Rara’s life. She never being angry when her friends hurt her heart. She is still keep calm and keep fighting to all of the problem that she faced. She also invite her friends to be kind person as they can.

B. Ethic aspect
Based on Oxford Dictionary ethic is a set of moral priciples, especially ones relating to or affirming a specified group, field, or form of conduct. Every human that was born in the world having this aspect. But, the form of this aspect is depend on the cultural background of them. As like as in this literary work, Rara show us her ethic aspect.
Rara : Polite person
It is proven, when Rara doing prays before she do her examination. In he short story in part saat ayah hanya datang dalam mimpi.
”Segala usaha sudah ku lalui, belajar, berdoa, bahkan menelepon semua guru mulai MI, MTS, MA dan sebagian dosenku yang mengajarku sejak semester satu hingga aku menempuh ujian ini. ”(Rara Zarary,2016:96)
It is kind of polite activity when someone has a good attitude. Segala usaha sudah ku lalui, belajar, berdoa, bahkan menelepon semua guru. As a Madurese person, Rara have a good religious background. Madura known having a lot of state islamic high school (pesantren). So that, Rara always remember about her father’s advice that everything she did must pray to the first. She pray and call all of her teacher.

C. Economic aspect
In This aspect Rara try to depicted how hard to life in the tanah rantau. It is proven in her short story in part katakan pada air mata dan luka.
“Luka dan air mata ini hanyalah sebuah hiasan pemanis cerita perantau pada kawan atau sahabat yang tidak merasakan bagaimana hidup-redup, senang-susah, suka-duka, dan pahit-manis menjalani kehidupan di tanah rantau.”(Rara Zarary,2016:102)
From this statement, we can feel how Rara’s feeling that life in the tanah rantau is so hard especially in word “ hidup redup” the word show that to life in tanah rantau in very hard but it is must do to get something she want like a better life with sufficient economic and it is the reason why rara decide to go to another town because in her town she can’t get something she want.. In this literary work Rara using the opposition between two word which have binary opposition to tell us that life in the tanah rantau have dificulties and easy things. It is like riding roller coaster. Sometimes, we are in the up, sometimes we are in the down but we must spirit to do it.

D. Affection aspect
Rara : romantist person
Rara write every part of her poem and short story with a beautiful word. She also use the imagery of the reader in order to make the reader feel what her feel.
It is proven in the poem under the title Pada Kekasihku.
Ceritakanlah padaku perihal senja yang sirna dari matamu
Bisikkanlah lagi aroma cinta yang mengendap di dadamu
Buatlah aku memahami titah cerita masa tentang kau dan aku.”
(Rara Zaray,2016:35)
In this part of the poem, Rara always feel longing with her boyfriend. But, her relationship was broken. “Bisikkanlah lagi aroma cinta yang mengendap di dadamu” tells that she wants to have relationship again and again with her x-boyfriend. She is still have the hope to comeback again with her x-boyfriend although the relationship is break but the hope is always there in this heart. She is really love with her x-boyfriend until she can’t forget about him and she want to have the relationship like in the past when they love each other.

E. Religion aspect

Based on Oxford Dictionay, religion os the belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power, especially a personal God or gods. Indonesia have some of religion such as Islamic, Christan, Buddha, and Hindu, but indonesia more dominant submit to Islamic Relagion.
Rara is one of religious woman in her life because she lives with her family who have a religious life. Although her father was passed away because of the accident, she always keep her religiousity life. It is proven in the short story in part saat ayah hanya datang lewat mimpi.
”Sebentar lagi kau akan menghadapi ujuian akhir MA (setara SMA)-mu. Belajar yang baik. Berdo’a yang baik. Bertingkahlah yang baik. Mintalah restu pada semua guru-gurumu agar semua ilmu yang mereka bagikan menjadi manfaat untuk dirimu. Dan jangan lupa jaga tahajudmu.”
(Rara Zarary,2016:95)

“Dan jangan lupa jaga tahajudmu.” This sentence refers that Rara is a Islamic Relagious. In her poem, Rara also often use the holy word to depicted her religiousity. As the islamic woman, she use the word such as Alloh, Khadijah, Ya-Akhi, do’a, tasbih.Rara still keep what her father says because her father always care with Rara’s activity. He wanna Rara become a good person without leaving her religiousity. Such as her duty to be islamic woman to keep her prays.

F. Education aspect

Based on Oxford Dictionary, Education is the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university. Education can be getting from in door and out door, in door such as school, islam boarding school, etc and out door can be getting from non formal education such as from family, society, etc.
Saat aku tahu, pagelaran wisuda tahun lalu menjadi sebab semua banyak kawan pulang ke pulau kelahirannya masing-masing untuk mencium teduh kening ayah-bunda, atau menyalami tanah basahnya dengan sebuah perjuangan selama bertahun-tahun di pulau Jawa, atau paling tidak mereka sudah memiliki rencana yang lebih pasti di rumahnya sendiri. (Rara Zarary, 2016: 91)
Rara is madurese person and she is diligent student we can khow that Rara is diligent from the quotation and she very care with education that is proved when She continue her study at University of Tribuana Tunggadewi Malang. Although she come from Madurse she never feel disheartened about it. A “saat aku tahu penggelaran wisuda tahun lalu” it is the word show that she ever study in university and know that life is very hard to reach high education . The impotant is how to be the good student and creative to make something make her happy and still keep her study. Although she like writer and that can be as her job but she still study because the education aspect is very important to all of people especially she as people who has big dream to become a academician and she want to make her parent happy with her activity because she only has mother because her father was pasedaway. So she really want to be succes people to make people around her pround of her and maybe it
can start from good education.

E. Conclusion
Based on the discussion on the sociology of literature in main character of collection of poem and short story Hujan dan Senja Tanah Rantau by Rara Zarary. The research concluded the following of aspect of sociology in main character Hujan dan Senja Tanah Rantau is there are six aspect include aspect of morality, education, relagioun, economic, ethic and Affection.(a). Aspect of morality is Rara Zarary is kind person. She never being angry when her friends hurt her heart. (b). Aspect of education is she very care with education that is proved when She continue her study at University of Tribuana Tunggadewi Malang. Rara is madurese person and she is diligent student . (c). Aspect of relagious, the relagious of this aouthor is islamic relagious. As the islamic woman, she use the word such as Alloh, Khadijah, Ya-Akhi, do’a, tasbih in her book. (d). Economic, Rara try to depicted how hard to life in the tanah rantau (e). Ethic, Rara Zarary is a polite person. (f). Affection, Rara Zarary is a romantic person, she can make a beautiful words.
The researcher provide suggestions for this better research that will come. For researchers is expected to continue this research in order to obtain satisfactory results. Researcher should read book more about literature, theory of literature and sociology of literature. Read the book collection of poem and short story can add the knowlande and comperehension of life. Reader can take the positive value from this book collection of poem and short story.

Zarary, Rara. 2016. Hujan dan Senja Tanah Rantau. Yogyakarta : Pustaka Senja
Laurenson, Diana and Alan Swingewood. 1972. The sociology of literature. New York : Georgia review
Easthope,Antony,1991.Literary into Cultural Studies.London& New York: Routledge
Faruk,2016. Pengantar Sosiologi Sastra. Yogyakarta : Pustaka Pelajar

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